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没有安史之乱,“中国最伟大诗人”也就是个二流诗人?


更新日期:2020-05-29 11:27:11来源:网络点击:669456
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JINRI,BBCTUICHULEZUIXINJILUPIANDu Fu: China’s Greatest Poet(《DUFU:ZHONGGUOZUIWEIDADESHIREN》),HENDUOWANGYOUJINGTANDUFUJURAN“MANG”DAOLEGUOWAI。(HUIGU:CONGZHEIBUBBCJILUPIAN,KANDUFUDERENYUSHI)

事实上,杜甫的影响早就越出国界,1961年,国际组织世界和平理事会号召全世界人民纪念四位世界文化名人,其中有一位就是杜。13世纪,杜诗就在邻国,如韩国、越南、日本广泛传播。1481年,韩国出现了世界上首部完整地把杜诗翻译过去的全译本《杜诗谚解》,最早的英译杜诗可以追溯到1741年。

QIANJINIAN,ZHUMINGHANXUEJIA、HAFODAXUEYUWENSUOANJIAOSHOU ( Stephen Owen) LISHIBANIANDEYIZUO “The Poetry of Du Fu” ,ZESHISHOUBUXUESHUXINGDEDUSHIYINGWENQUANYIBEN。

YUWENSUOANHETADEYIZUO《DUFUSHI》(The Poetry of Du Fu)

YUWENSUOANJIANGDUFUYUDANDING、SHASHIBIYABINGCHENG,RENWEITAMENYIQICHUANGZAOLEPINGPANWEIDASHIGEDEBIAOZHUN。YUWENSUOANSHUO:

“TA(DUFU)SHIGETINGQIGUAIDESHIREN。TAHEJIARENBANDAOCHENGDOUYIHOU,TADEDADIANXIUZHENGZHAIYUAN,HAIJIRENXIESHIHUANGUOSHUHETAOQI。CONGLAIMEIYOURENXIEGUOZHEIYANGDESHI。TACENGJINGJITADEJIANUXINXING(YINYI)XIELEYISHOUSHI,CHENGZANTAXIUHAOLEZHAIZILIDESHUIGUAN。NEISHIYISHOUHAOSHI,JIANGDESHISHENGHUOZAIXIANSHISHIJIEDEHUANLEHEXINFAXIAN,TABUSHISHENGHUOZAISHIRENHANJIANDESHIYISHIJIE。”

今天的推送是著名诗人西川在其著述《唐诗的读法》中关于杜甫的篇章,在西川看来:“杜甫的写作成就于安史之乱,没有安史之乱,他可能也就是个二流诗人。他被迫走进了安史之乱,将周身的感觉器官全部打开,记录下自己的颠沛经验,接通了一己“天地一沙鸥”的存在与当下历史、古圣先贤的坎坷,将自己的文字提升到日月精华的程度,同时解除了王维式的语言洁癖,靠近、接触、包纳万有。”

安史之乱 儒家道统 杜甫和韩愈

WEN/XICHUAN

1

TANGDAIDEZHULIUSHIRENMEN,WANGCHANGLING、WANGWEI、CHUGUANGXI、LIHUA、LIBAI、LIQI、DUFU、GAOSHI、CENCAN、YUANJIE、FENGZHUDENG,HUODEYIHUOSHIYI,HUOFUYOUHUOPINQIONG,HUOJUJINHUOFANGDA,YILUZOUDAOLEANSHIZHILUAN(755—763NIAN)。

ANSHIZHILUANDUIYUTANGCHAODEYINGXIANG,DUIYUZHENGGEZHONGGUOLISHIDEYINGXIANGDOUSHIZHIQIANGZHIDADE。RIBENXUEZHENEITENGHUNANRENWEITANGSONGZHIJISHIZHONGGUOGUDAIHEJINSHIDEJIAOJIEDIAN,YINYOU“TANGSONGBIANGESHUO”,YEKEYIBEICHENGZUO“TANGSONGZHIBIAN”;CHENYINKEGENGMINGQUETICHUANSHIZHILUANSHIZHONGGUOGUDAILISHIDEFENSHUILING。

ANSHIZHILUANZHIQIANSHIQINGCHUN、HUIMIN、TONGYI、ANDING、FUZU、GAOGEDETANGTU,ANSHIZHILUANHOU,TANGCHAOYUANQIDASHANG,JIANXIN、WEIJI、DONGDANGJIEZHONGERZHI,DANGZHENG、HUANGUANZHENGZHI、FANZHENGEJUDEJUMIANXINGCHENG;BUGUOYUCITONGSHI,TANGCHAOQUEBINGMEIYOUXIANGHANCHAOFENCHENGXIHAN、DONGHAN,XIANGJINCHAOFENCHENGXIJIN、DONGJIN,XIANGSONGCHAOFENCHENGBEISONG、NANSONG,YUCIYEJIANCHULETANGWANGCHAOSHENGMINGLIDEWANQIANG。

对唐朝的诗歌写作和更广义的文学创作而言,安史之乱同样起到了重大的转捩点作用。它废掉了一些人的写作功夫,淘汰了一些人的写作成果。

RUGUOYIGEZHONGDALISHISHIJIANRUANSHIZHILUANDECHUXIAN,BUNENGZAITAOTAIYUBAOFEIDEYIYISHANGYINGXIANGDAOSHIRENZUOJIAMENDECHUANGZUO,NEITAJIBENSHANGJIUSHIBEILANGFEIDIAOLE。

ERANSHIZHILUANJURANWEIZHONGGUOTUICHULEZUIWEIDADESHIREN:DUFU。ZHEISHIANLUSHAN、SHISIMINGMEIYOUXIANGDAODE,ZHEISHIWANGWEI、LIBAI、SUZONGHUANGDIMEIYOUXIANGDAODE,ZHEIYESHIDUFUZIJIMEIYOUXIANGDAODE。

DUFUXIANG

杜甫的写作成就于安史之乱,没有安史之乱,他可能也就是个二流诗人。

TABEIPOZOUJINLEANSHIZHILUAN,JIANGZHOUSHENDEGANJUEQIGUANQUANBUDAKAI,JILUXIAZIJIDEDIANPEIJINGYAN,JIETONGLEYIJI“TIANDIYISHAOU”DECUNZAIYUDANGXIALISHI、GUSHENGXIANXIANDEKANKE,JIANGZIJIDEWENZITISHENGDAORIYUEJINGHUADECHENGDU,TONGSHIJIECHULEWANGWEISHIDEYUYANJIEPI,KAOJIN、JIECHU、BAONAWANYOU。

在杜甫面前,王维所代表的前安史之乱的长安诗歌趣味,就作废了。王维经历了安史之乱,但是他已然固定下来的文学趣味和他被迫充任安禄山大燕朝廷伪职的道德麻烦,使之无能处理这一重大而突然,同时又过分真实的历史变局。这真是老天弄人。

QIJINGLI、CHUJINGLINGRENLIANXIANGDAOCAIGAOYANGU、JUNYAZAOJI,QUEDIULEJIANGSHANDESONGHUIZONG。WANGWEIDEYUYANXIESHANSHUI、TIANYUANHEBIANSAIDOUKEYI,TAKEYIJIANGSHANSHUI、TIANYUANHEBIANSAITONGTONGZUOWEIFENGJINGLAICHULI,YIJINGYUQING,JIEJINGSHUQING(JIEYONGZHONGXUEYUWENLAOSHIMENDEHUA),DANYAOCHULIANSHIZHILUAN,TAXUYAOXIANGTADEXIEZUOYINRUSHIJIANWEIDU,TONGSHIPOCHUTADEYUYANJIEPI,CHAOXIANGFANQUWEIDESHUXIE。

ZHEIDUIWANGWEILAISHUOSHIBUKENENGDEGONGZUO。

WANGWEIXIANG

所以安史之乱塑造的唯一一位大诗人是杜甫。杜甫在安史之乱中发展出一种王维身上没有的东西 :当代性。杜甫的诗歌很多在处理当下,他创造性地以诗歌书写介入了唐宋之变。

GUWANGJINLAI,YIBANRENDOUHUIRENWEIDANGXIAMEIYOUSHIYI,ERBIRUYUELIANG、QIUTIAN、LINMU、XISHUI、SHANLUAN、SIYU、KEZHAN、JIAXIANG,SHENZHIPINQIONG、MANHUANG、HUXIAOYUANTI,YOUYUGUOQUBEIFANFUSHUXIEGUOWUSHUBIAN,BIANBEIJILEIWEISHIYIFUHAO,HUISHUNLICHENGZHANGDICHENGXIANYUYUYAN。

DANZAIDANGXIA,HURANNATIANHUAGONGCHANGBAOZHA,SHIYOUXIELOU,DIXIASHUIWURAN,GUSHIBENGPAN,NIXIESHISHISHI,NIXIEBULE,YINWEININEILAIZITARENDE、SHUYUNONGYEWENHUAHEJINSHIWENHUASHENMEIQUWEIDE、MOSHIHUALEDE、YOUMEIDE、SHUXIEXINLINGDESUOWEI “WENXUEYUYAN”,CHULIBULEZHEILEISHI,YINWEINIZAIYUYANSHANGBUSHIFAMING。

杜甫的当代性是与他复杂的时间观并生在一起的。他让三种时间交叠:历史时间、自然时间、个人时间。而如果说王维的风景也贯穿着时间之纬的话,那么那只是一种绝对的时间。所以在这个意义上王维是一个二流诗人。

QIANZHONGSHUPANDUANWANGWEIJIUSHIGEERLIUSHIREN,DANQUESHIERLIUSHIRENLIZUIHAODEYIGE,TASHUO :“ZHONGTANGYIHOU,ZHONGWANGSUOGUIDEDASHIRENYIZHISHIDUFU……WANGWEIHEDUFUXIANGBI,ZHINENGSUAN‘XIAODEDASHIREN'。”

LIBAIYEJUANRULEANSHIZHILUAN,TAYINYONGZHE“DANYONGDONGSHANXIEANSHI,WEIJUNTANXIAOJINGHUSHA”JIARULEYONGWANGLILINDEQINWANGJUNDUI。YIGERENZIDADAOGUONANDANGTOUYIRANZHEIMEZIDA,ERQIESHIJIANGWENXUEZIDAZHUANHUACHENGLEZHENGZHIZIDA,ZHEIYESUANSHIQIGUANLE!

LIBAIMEIXIANGDAOSUZONGDENGJIHOU,YONGWANGJIUCHENGLEPANJUN,ZAILAOPENGYOUGAOSHIDEZHENYAXIA,TAZOUSHANGLELIUFANGYELANGZHITU。

2

TANGCHAOSHIYIGEGUOJIHUADECHAODAI。TANGTUSHANGJUZHUZHEZHONGDUOSHAOSHUMINZUHEWAIGUOREN。TANGCHAOTINGRENYONGFEIHANRENZUOBIANJIANG,SHOUYIDEYEBUJINSHIANLUSHAN,XITUJUETUQISHIBUSHOULINGGESHUHANYESHISHOUYIZHEZHIYI。

ZAIANSHIZHILUANZHICHU,YINBINGBAIYUCHANYANBEICHAOTINGZHANSHADEDAJIANGGAOXIANZHISHIGAOJULIWANGZU。ZAISUIJIAXUANZONGHUANGDIBINANSHUZHONGDERENYUANDANGZHONGYOUYIWEIHANMINGCHAOHENGDERIBENREN,BENMINGABEIZHONGMALV。

ANSHIZHILUANZHONGSHISIMINGSUOZHUDEYIYUANBAOHESHUNTIANYUANBAO

ANSHIZHILUANTEBIEFUZA:HANZU、ZHONGGUODEZHENGTONGWANGCHAO、SHAOSHUMINZU、WAIGUOREN、XIYUWENHUA,HAIYOUZONGJIAOWENTI,DOUHUNZAILEYIQI。YOUYUANSHIZHILUAN,HUIHERENJINLAI,TUFANRENJINLAI,ZHONGGUOYIXIAJIULUANLETAO,ZHONGGUOLISHILAILEYIGEKUAYUETANGSONGDEDAZHUANZHE。

荣新江指出:“安史之乱后,唐朝境内出现了对胡人的攻击和对胡化的排斥。特别是中唐时代思想界对于胡化的反弹,演变成韩愈等人发动的复古运动。这种一味以中华古典为上的思潮,最终导致了宋朝的内敛和懦弱。”

SONGCHAORENSHIFOU“NUORUO”,HANYUJIUJINGZHISHISHUNYINGLEDANGSHISIXIANGJIEDEYANBIANHAISHIYOUQIDUTEDEZUOWEI,ZANMENDOUKEYIZAITAOLUN,DANHANYUQUESHI“ZUOSHUDIFOJIJUNWANG,FANDUIXIANZONGYINGFOGU,RANHOUBEIBIANCHAOZHOUCISHI。ZAIFURENDELUSHANGTAXIEXIA“YUWEISHENGMINGCHUBISHI,KENJIANGSHUAIXIUXICANNIAN”DESHIJU。

HANYUSHUFABEI

ZAIHANYUKANLAI,SHIJIAMOUNIYEXIANGANLUSHANYIYANGSHIYIZHONG。ZAIQIYUYUANHESHISINIAN(819NIAN)SUOSHANG《LUNFOGUBIAO》ZHONG,HANYUSHUO :

FUYIFOZHE,YIDIZHIYIFAER。ZIHOUHANSHILIURUZHONGGUO,SHANGGUWEICHANGYOUYE……FUFOBENYIDIZHIREN,YUZHONGGUOYANYUBUTONG,YIFUSHUZHI,KOUBUYANXIANWANGZHIFAYAN,SHENBUFUXIANWANGZHIFAFU,BUZHIJUNCHENZHIYI、FUZIZHIQING。

ZHEIYANGDEFANDUILIYOUYIGUOJIHUADEJINRENKANLAIJIFUQIANYOUKEXIAO,DANDUIHANYULAISHUO,ZHEIFUQIANYOUKEXIAODELIYOUQUELAIZIZHONGYUANMINZUDEQIEFUZHITONG。

SUOYIHANYUZAISIXIANGLINGYUJIUBIYUHUIGUIRUJIADAOTONG,YUCIXIANGYING,TAZAIWENXUELINGYUGAOGUWENYUNDONG(DANGUWENYUNDONGDEYUANTOUKEZHUISUDAO《SUISHU》ZHONGJIZAIDESUIWENDI“PUZHAOTIANXIAGONGSIWENHANBINGYISHILU”,HUOZHEGENGZAO。CHUTANGCHENZIANGZAI《YUDONGFANGZUOSHIQIUXIUZHUPIANXU》ZHONGGANTANDAO:“WENZHANGDAOBIWUBAINIANYI。”XUANZONGCHAOLIHUA、XIAOYINGSHIYICHANGWEIGUWEN。DANGUWENYUNDONGDAOHANYU、LIUZONGYUANSHOUSHANGDEYIQUELI,WUYISHIDEDAOLEANSHIZHILUANDETUIDONG)。

TAZAIXIESHISHANGYIWENWEISHI,ZAIQUWEISHANGKOUZHUDANGXIA,SHENZHIKOUZHUDANGXIASHIJIEFEISHIYIDEYIMIAN(DUIHANYUDESHIGE,SONGDAIYANYUZAI《CANGLANGSHIHUA》ZHONGZHIQIQUEFAMIAOWU,BURUTADEHAOPENGYOUMENGJIAO。DANMIAOWUQIALAIZIFOJIAOSHANZONG。ERFOJIAO,ZAIHANYUKANLAI,ZHENGSHIWAIGUORENDEWANYIER,JINGUANSHANZONGSHIBENTUHUADECHANWU。)。

NAHANYUHEYUZHITONGCHAOWEIGUANDEDASHIRENBAIJUYIZUOGEJIANDANBIJIAO,WOMENJIUNENGKANCHUHANYUSUOTUIDONGDESHIDAIXINGSIXIANGZHUANBIAN、XIEZUOFANGSHIDEZHUANBIANQILILIANGYOUDUODA:DUIBAIJUYILAISHUO,ANSHIZHILUANZHISHITIGONGLETAXIEZUO《ZHANGHENGE》DETICAIERYI。ERQIEZHEITICAIHAIBEIYUESHUZAILEGUIFEIYANGYUHUANHEXUANZONGHUANGDILILONGJIDEMIANMIANWUJUEQIDEAIQINGBEIJUSHANG。

NANSONGYIMING《YANGGUIFEISHANGMATU》(ZANGBOSHIDUNYISHUBOWUGUAN)

HANYUDERUJIADAOTONGSHANGSUDAOMENGZI。HANYUZAI《YUANDAO》YIWENZHONGSHUO :

YUE:“SIDAOYE,HEDAOYE?”YUE :“SIWUSUOWEIDAOYE,FEIXIANGSUOWEILAOYUFOZHIDAOYE。”YAOYISHICHUANZHISHUN,SHUNYISHICHUANZHIYU,YUYISHICHUANZHITANG,TANGYISHICHUANZHIWENWUZHOUGONG,WENWUZHOUGONGCHUANZHIKONGZI,KONGZICHUANZHIMENGKE;KEZHISI,BUDEQICHUANYAN。XUNYUYANGYE,ZEYANERBUJING,YUYANERBUXIANG。YOUZHOUGONGERSHANG,SHANGERWEIJUN,GUQISHIXING;YOUZHOUGONGERXIA,XIAERWEICHEN,GUQISHUOZHANG。

ZHEIYANGYIGERUJIADAOTONGYOUBIANZAODEXIANYI,DANZAI《YUMENGSHANGSHUSHU》ZHONG,HANYUSHUO :“SHIQIDAOYOUYUERCUCHUAN。”——TAZHEISHIYISHENGDAOCHUANRENZIJULE。

WANTANGDUMUZAI《SHUCHUZHOUHANLIBUKONGZIMIAOBEIYIN》ZHONGCHONGFENKENDINGLEHANYUDUIZHANGDARUJIADAOTONGSUOQIDEZUOYONG:“CHENGFUZIZHIDE,MORUMENGZI;CHENGFUZIZHIZUN,MORUHANLIBU。”

韩愈的这种道德、学术与历史姿态,对后世儒生、知识分子影响至深,宋儒张载“为天地立心”的豪言姑且略过,即使到陈寅恪,也有“吾侪所学关天命”的说法。

MENGZIHEHANYUSUOZONGJIEDEZHONGGUODAOTONG,WEIDUGUSHUDERENMENSUOSHUXI,ZHEILIZANMENZHISHIFUXIYIXIA。HANYUHEMENGZIZHIJIANDEGUANXIKENENGBUJINSHI “DAOTONG”DECHUANDI。LIANGRENQIZHISHANGYINGYIYOUSUOXIANGTONG。

SUSHI《CHAOZHOUHANWENGONGMIAOBEI》:

ZIDONGHANYILAI,DAOSANGWENBI,YIDUANBINGQI,LITANGZHENGUAN、KAIYUANZHISHENG,FUYIFANG、DU、YAO、SONGERBUNENGJIU。DUHANWENGONGQIBUYI,TANXIAOERHUIZHI,TIANXIAMIRANCONGGONG,FUGUIYUZHENG,GAISANBAINIANYUCIYI。WENQIBADAIZHISHUAI,ERDAOJITIANXIAZHINI;ZHONGFANRENZHUZHINU,ERYONGDUOSANJUNZHISHUAI:CIQIFEICANTIANDI,GUANSHENGSHUAI,HAORANERDUCUNZHEHU?

ZHEI“HAORAN”ERZILAIZIMENGZIDE“WOSHANYANGWUHAORANZHIQI”。

SUSHI《CHAOZHOUHANWENGONGMIAOBEI》SHUO:

SHIQIYE,YUYUXUNCHANGZHIZHONG,ERSAIHUTIANDIZHIJIAN。ZURANYUZHI,ZEWANGGONGSHIQIGUI,JIN、CHUSHIQIFU,LIANG、PING SHIQIZHI,BI、YUSHIQIYONG,YI、QINSHIQIBIAN。SHISHUSHIZHIRANZAI?QIBIYOUBUYIXINGERLI,BUSHILIERXING,BUDAISHENGERCUN,BUSUISIERWANGZHEYI。GUZAITIANWEIXINGCHEN,ZAIDIWEIHEYUE,YOUZEWEIGUISHEN,ERMINGZEFUWEIREN。

ZHEISHIYIDUANGANRENZHISHENDEBIAOSHU。YOUSHI,WOMENKANCHULESUSHIBENRENYUHANYU、MENGZIDAOTONGDEXIANGTONG——JINGUANSUSHIGENGSHIYIWEIRUSHIDAOJIANTONGZHIREN。YOUSHI,WOMENYEKANCHUYIBANSONGRUDUIYUHANYUDAOTONGDERENTONGYUSHENGXI。

HANYUXIANG

宋儒由此倡孔孟,再往后,官员—文人—思想者们最终将宋化的儒学提升到国家哲学层面,这就是传道系统的延续。唐以后这样的精神气度影响到每一位真正的有质量的文人、诗歌作者。

正是这样的精神气度严格区分了唐以来的中国古典诗歌与当下的所谓古体诗。

诗不诗的不仅在于语言是否精简,词汇是否优雅、古奥,诗意是否噬心,诗格是否快意恩仇或者嬉笑怒骂或者块垒独浇或者空阔寂灭,当代古体诗即使守平仄、押古韵,而没有士子精神、儒家道统、道释之心,那和中国古典诗歌也是差着十万八千里。

古人是无法冒充的。咱们只能活出咱们自己的容纳古人、与古人气息相通的当下、今天、现在、此刻。

3

前面说到安史之乱成就了杜甫的写作,而杜甫“诗圣”地位的确立应该与孟子、儒家道统的完全确立处于同一时期,至少不无关系。那么儒家思想是如何介入中国人的文学艺术创造的呢?

QIANZHONGSHUZAI《ZHONGGUOSHIYUZHONGGUOHUA》YIWENZHONGTANDAOZHONGGUORENDUISHIYUHUAYOUBUTONGDEPINGJIABIAOZHUN,TASHUO :“ZAIZHONGGUOWENYIPIPINGDECHUANTONGLI,XIANGDANGYUNANZONGHUAFENGDESHIBUSHISHIZHONGGAOPINHUOZHENGZONG,ERXIANGDANGYUSHENYUNPAISHIFENGDEHUAQUESHIHUAZHONGGAOPINHUOZHENGZONG。JIUSHIHUOJIUHUADEBIAOZHUNFENQISHIPIPINGSHILIDESHISHI。”

按照钱锺书这个思路,我们可以推出,历史上人们以道家、禅宗标准评画,而以儒家标准评诗。

YINERDUFUBEIZUNWEI“SHISHENG”。ER“SHENG”ZAIRUJIABIAOSHUXITONGLIDIWEISHIZUIGAODE。

ZAIWANTANGSIKONGTUSUOZHU《ERSHISISHIPIN》ZHONG,WEILIEDIYIDESHIYURUJIAPINWEIXIANGGUANDE“XIONGHUN”,QIHOUBIANSHI“YOUZHIHUIFENG,RENRANZAIYI”DE“CHONGDAN”ZHIPIN。ZAISUIHOUDEZHUPINZHONG,YOUSHIJIPINQISHIDOUKEGUIRU“CHONGDAN”PIN。ERYANYUCHANGDAOSHIGEDE“MIAOWU”,GENGSHI“LUNSHIRULUNSHAN”。

SUIRANZAI《CANGLANGSHIHUA》ZHONGTAYEYAOSHIRENMEN“YIHAN、WEI、JIN、SHENGTANGWEISHI,BUZUOKAIYUAN、TIANBAOYIXIARENWU”,DANZAITAZUOCHU“SHIYOUBIECAI,FEIGUANSHUYE;SHIYOUBIEQU,FEIGUANLIYE”DEPANDUANZHIHOU, ZHONGGUORENDUIYUSHIYIDEKANFAQISHISHIYOULEYIXIEBIANHUADE。

QINGCHUWANGSHIZHENZHU“SHENYUN”,YUANMEIZHU“XINGLING”,NONGDEMINGDAI“WENBIQINHAN,SHIBISHENGTANG”DEQIANHOUQIZIYIGEGEBENZHUOLAOPAIDEYANGZI。

DAOLEJINTIAN,RENMENZAITANLUNDUFUZHEIYANGDERUJIASHIRENDESHIHOUKAISHIQIANGDIAOQICIYAODEYIMIAN,LIRUQILVYI、YIQU, SHENZHIWANPI,LIRU“LIANGGEHUANGLIMINGCUILIU” “HUANGSINIANGJIAHUAMANXI” “TAOHUAYICUKAIWUZHU”DENGDENG。

ZHEIYANGDESHIJUBEIYULEHUA、SHENGHUOHUA、QUSHENDUHUADEJINRENRENWEIGENGNENGTIXIANDUFUDEBENXING,SHIDUFUGENGZHENSHIDEYIMIAN——FANGFONEIGESILITAOSHENGYOUDIANPEIZHISIDEDUFUFANDAOSHIKEYIZUOCHULAIDESIDE……

但不管怎么说,杜甫被尊为诗圣就是儒家的胜利。而儒家真正的胜利竟然部分地是拜安史之乱所赐!

YOUDIANDAOMEIDESHIZIDAKUANGLIBAI。SONGREN“YILIYANGDU”,YINGXIANGZHIJIN。WOMENKANJINRENDETANGSHIXUANBEN,DUFUDESHIGEPIANMUZONGSHIDUOYULIBAI。

NEIMEHEWEIRUJIASHIGEBIAOZHUNNI?《MAOSHIZHENGYI·SHIPUXU》ZHONGSHUO:“RANZESHIYOUSANXUN:CHENGYE,ZHIYE,CHIYE。ZUOZHECHENGJUNZHENGZHISHANE,SHUJIZHIERZUOSHI,SUOYICHIRENZHIXING,SHIBUSHIZHUI,GUYIMINGERSANXUNYE。”DUFUDEBUSHAOSHIPIANQUEFUHEZHEIRUSHIDE“SANXUN”(JINGUAN《SHIPUXU》SUOYANZHI“SHI” WEI《SHIJING》ZHI“SHI”)。

ERJINRENXIESHI,JINGGUOLE“WUSI”、 GONGCHANDANGJIAOYU,DUGUOLEXIFANG、ELUOSI、LAMEIDELANGMANPAI、XIANDAIPAI、HOUXIANDAIZHUYI,YIJIZHEXUE、SHEHUILILUN、WENHUALILUNZHONGDEXINGSHIZHUYI、JIEGOUZHUYI、JIEGOUZHUYI、NVXINGZHUYI、 XINLISHIZHUYI、DUIXIFANGDEDONGFANGZHUYIDEPIPAN、HOUZHIMINLILUN,YIJIZHENGZHIZHEXUEZHONGDEXIFANGMAKESIZHUYI、ZIYOUZHUYI、 WUZHENGFUZHUYI……

ZAIMIANDUIZHEI“SANXUN”,NIYIDINGHUIYOUYUBUJUEYAOFOUZUNSHOU,CHUFEINITIELEXIN,WANQUANWUSHIZHEIYIQIE。

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CHUBANNIAN: 2018-4

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2019年末全国拥有公路营运汽车1165.49万辆 人民网北京5月13日电交通运输部12日发布2019年交通运输行业发展统计公报显示,2019年末全国拥有公路营运汽车1165.49万辆,水上运输船舶13.16万艘,公共汽电车69.33万辆,轨道交通配属车辆40998辆,巡游出租汽车139.16万辆。 公报显示,2019年末全国拥有公路营运汽车1165.49万辆,比上年下降18.8%。拥有载客汽车77.67万辆,比上年下降2.5%,共计2002.53万客位,下降2.2%。拥有载货汽车1087.82万辆,比上年下降19.8%,共计13587.00万吨位,增长5.5%。 2019年末全国拥有水上运输船舶13.16万艘,比上年下降4.0%;净载重量25684.97万吨,增长2.3%;载客量88.58万客位,下降8.0%;集装箱箱..

交通运输部:去年交通固定资产投资3.2万亿元 人民网北京5月13日电交通运输部12日发布2019年交通运输行业发展统计公报显示,2019年完成交通固定资产投资32451亿元,比上年增长3.1%。铁路投资8029亿元,公路建设投资21895亿元,水运建设投资1137亿元,民航建设固定资产投资969.4亿元,公路水路支持系统及其他建设投资420亿元。 公报指出,2019年完成铁路固定资产投资8029亿元,公路建设投资21895亿元,比上年增长2.6%。其中,高速公路建设完成投资11504亿元,增长15.4%;普通国省道建设完成投资4924亿元,下降10.3%;农村公路建设完成投资4663亿元,下降6.5%。 全年完成水运建设投资1137亿元,比上年下降4.4%。其中,内河建设完..

去年完成营业性客运量176.04亿人、货运量462.24亿吨原标题:去年完成营业性客运量176.04亿人、货运量462.24亿吨   5月12日讯 交通运输部12日发布2019年交通运输行业发展统计公报显示,2019年,完成营业性客运量176.04亿人,比上年下降1.9%,完成旅客周转量35349.06亿人公里,增长3.3%;完成营业性货运量462.24亿吨,增长4.8%,完成货物周转量194044.56亿吨公里,增长3.4%。   其中,铁路方面,全年完成旅客发送量36.60亿人,比上年增长8.4%,完成旅客周转量14706.64亿人公里,增长4.0%。全国铁路完成货物总发送量43.89亿吨,比上年增长7.2%,完成货物总周转量30181.95亿吨公里,增长4.3%。   公路方面,全年完成营业性客运量130...

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